Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (DDPG)

DDPG is an extension of DQN to work in continuous action spaces by introducing an actor network that outputs continuous actions.

Can I use it?

Action

Observation

Discrete

✔️

Continuous

✔️

✔️

Example

import gymnasium as gym
from agilerl.utils.utils import makeVectEnvs
from agilerl.components.replay_buffer import ReplayBuffer
from agilerl.algorithms.ddpg import DDPG

# Create environment and Experience Replay Buffer
env = makeVectEnvs('LunarLanderContinuous-v2', num_envs=1)
try:
    state_dim = env.single_observation_space.n          # Discrete observation space
    one_hot = True                                      # Requires one-hot encoding
except:
    state_dim = env.single_observation_space.shape      # Continuous observation space
    one_hot = False                                     # Does not require one-hot encoding
try:
    action_dim = env.single_action_space.n              # Discrete action space
except:
    action_dim = env.single_action_space.shape[0]       # Continuous action space

channels_last = False # Swap image channels dimension from last to first [H, W, C] -> [C, H, W]

if channels_last:
    state_dim = (state_dim[2], state_dim[0], state_dim[1])

field_names = ["state", "action", "reward", "next_state", "done"]
memory = ReplayBuffer(action_dim=action_dim, memory_size=10000, field_names=field_names)

agent = DDPG(state_dim=state_dim, action_dim=action_dim, one_hot=one_hot)   # Create DDPG agent

state = env.reset()[0]  # Reset environment at start of episode
while True:
    if channels_last:
        state = np.moveaxis(state, [3], [1])
    action = agent.getAction(state, training=True)    # Get next action from agent
    next_state, reward, done, _, _ = env.step(action)   # Act in environment

    # Save experience to replay buffer
    if channels_last:
        memory.save2memoryVectEnvs(state, action, reward, np.moveaxis(next_state, [3], [1]), done)
    else:
        memory.save2memoryVectEnvs(state, action, reward, next_state, done)

    # Learn according to learning frequency
    if memory.counter % agent.learn_step == 0 and len(memory) >= agent.batch_size:
        experiences = memory.sample(agent.batch_size) # Sample replay buffer
        agent.learn(experiences)    # Learn according to agent's RL algorithm

To configure the network architecture, pass a dict to the DDPG net_config field. For an MLP, this can be as simple as:

NET_CONFIG = {
      'arch': 'mlp',      # Network architecture
      'hidden_size': [32, 32]  # Network hidden size
  }

Or for a CNN:

NET_CONFIG = {
      'arch': 'cnn',      # Network architecture
      'hidden_size': [128],    # Network hidden size
      'channel_size': [32, 32], # CNN channel size
      'kernel_size': [8, 4],   # CNN kernel size
      'stride_size': [4, 2],   # CNN stride size
      'normalize': True   # Normalize image from range [0,255] to [0,1]
  }
agent = DDPG(state_dim=state_dim, action_dim=action_dim, one_hot=one_hot, net_config=NET_CONFIG)   # Create DDPG agent

Saving and loading agents

To save an agent, use the saveCheckpoint method:

from agilerl.algorithms.ddpg import DDPG

agent = DDPG(state_dim=state_dim, action_dim=action_dim, one_hot=one_hot)   # Create DDPG agent

checkpoint_path = "path/to/checkpoint"
agent.saveCheckpoint(checkpoint_path)

To load a saved agent, use the load method:

from agilerl.algorithms.ddpg import DDPG

checkpoint_path = "path/to/checkpoint"
agent = DDPG.load(checkpoint_path)

Parameters

class agilerl.algorithms.ddpg.DDPG(state_dim, action_dim, one_hot, max_action=1, min_action=-1, O_U_noise=True, expl_noise=0.1, mean_noise=0.0, theta=0.15, dt=0.01, index=0, net_config={'arch': 'mlp', 'hidden_size': [64, 64]}, batch_size=64, lr_actor=0.0001, lr_critic=0.001, learn_step=5, gamma=0.99, tau=0.001, mut=None, policy_freq=2, actor_network=None, critic_network=None, device='cpu', accelerator=None, wrap=True)

The DDPG algorithm class. DDPG paper: https://arxiv.org/abs/1509.02971

Parameters:
  • state_dim (list[int]) – State observation dimension

  • action_dim (int) – Action dimension

  • one_hot (bool) – One-hot encoding, used with discrete observation spaces

  • max_action (float, optional) – Upper bound of the action space, defaults to 1

  • min_action (float, optional) – Lower bound of the action space, defaults to -1

  • O_U_noise (bool, optional) – Use Ornstein Uhlenbeck action noise for exploration. If False, uses Gaussian noise. Defaults to True

  • expl_noise (float, optional) – Scale for Ornstein Uhlenbeck action noise, or standard deviation for Gaussian exploration noise

  • mean_noise (float, optional) – Mean of exploration noise, defaults to 0.0

  • theta (float, optional) – Rate of mean reversion in Ornstein Uhlenbeck action noise, defaults to 0.15

  • dt (float, optional) – Timestep for Ornstein Uhlenbeck action noise update, defaults to 1e-2

  • index (int, optional) – Index to keep track of object instance during tournament selection and mutation, defaults to 0

  • net_config (dict, optional) – Network configuration, defaults to mlp with hidden size [64,64]

  • batch_size (int, optional) – Size of batched sample from replay buffer for learning, defaults to 64

  • lr_actor (float, optional) – Learning rate for actor optimizer, defaults to 1e-4

  • lr_critic (float, optional) – Learning rate for critic optimizer, defaults to 1e-3

  • learn_step (int, optional) – Learning frequency, defaults to 5

  • gamma (float, optional) – Discount factor, defaults to 0.99

  • tau (float, optional) – For soft update of target network parameters, defaults to 1e-3

  • mut (str, optional) – Most recent mutation to agent, defaults to None

  • policy_freq (int, optional) – Frequency of critic network updates compared to policy network, defaults to 2

  • actor_network (nn.Module, optional) – Custom actor network, defaults to None

  • critic_network (nn.Module, optional) – Custom critic network, defaults to None

  • device (str, optional) – Device for accelerated computing, ‘cpu’ or ‘cuda’, defaults to ‘cpu’

  • accelerator (accelerate.Accelerator(), optional) – Accelerator for distributed computing, defaults to None

  • wrap (bool, optional) – Wrap models for distributed training upon creation, defaults to True

action_noise()
Create action noise for exploration, either Ornstein Uhlenbeck or

from a normal distribution.

Returns:

Action noise

Return type:

np.ndArray

clone(index=None, wrap=True)

Returns cloned agent identical to self.

Parameters:

index (int, optional) – Index to keep track of agent for tournament selection and mutation, defaults to None

getAction(state, training=True)

Returns the next action to take in the environment. Epsilon is the probability of taking a random action, used for exploration. For epsilon-greedy behaviour, set epsilon to 0.

Parameters:
  • state (numpy.ndarray[float]) – Environment observation, or multiple observations in a batch

  • training (bool, optional) – Agent is training, use exploration noise, defaults to True

learn(experiences, noise_clip=0.5, policy_noise=0.2)

Updates agent network parameters to learn from experiences.

Parameters:
  • experience (list[torch.Tensor[float]]) – List of batched states, actions, rewards, next_states, dones in that order.

  • noise_clip (float, optional) – Maximum noise limit to apply to actions, defaults to 0.5

  • policy_noise (float, optional) – Standard deviation of noise applied to policy, defaults to 0.2

classmethod load(path, device='cpu', accelerator=None)

Creates agent with properties and network weights loaded from path.

Parameters:
  • path (string) – Location to load checkpoint from

  • device (str, optional) – Device for accelerated computing, ‘cpu’ or ‘cuda’, defaults to ‘cpu’

  • accelerator (accelerate.Accelerator(), optional) – Accelerator for distributed computing, defaults to None

loadCheckpoint(path)

Loads saved agent properties and network weights from checkpoint.

Parameters:

path (string) – Location to load checkpoint from

saveCheckpoint(path)

Saves a checkpoint of agent properties and network weights to path.

Parameters:

path (string) – Location to save checkpoint at

scale_to_action_space(action)

Scales actions to action space defined by self.min_action and self.max_action.

Parameters:

action (numpy.ndarray) – Action to be scaled

softUpdate(net, target)

Soft updates target network.

test(env, swap_channels=False, max_steps=None, loop=3)

Returns mean test score of agent in environment with epsilon-greedy policy.

Parameters:
  • env (Gym-style environment) – The environment to be tested in

  • swap_channels (bool, optional) – Swap image channels dimension from last to first [H, W, C] -> [C, H, W], defaults to False

  • max_steps (int, optional) – Maximum number of testing steps, defaults to None

  • loop (int, optional) – Number of testing loops/episodes to complete. The returned score is the mean. Defaults to 3